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Особенности употребления страдательного залога в английских и японских газетах

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Размещено: 18.12.2020
During the writing of the course work, the passive construction of the English and Japanese languages were studied. The work is divided into two main parts: theoretical and practical part. Based on received material, there are several conclusions to be made: Unlike English, verbs come at the end of a sentence or a clause in Japanese.
Введение

The Passive Voice is used to show interest in the person or object that experiences an action rather than the person or object that performs the action. In other words, the most important thing or person becomes the subject of the sentence. To ensure that scientific articles are clear and accurate for the reader, some experts in the field of scientific writing recommend either not to abuse Passive sentences [13]. Other people advise not to go doubtless ten percent of Passive Voice use [9], and some others advice abandoning the practice of their use. The Passive Voice observed in formal style texts. Change over to the Active Voice will make speech clearer and easier to read. If want to say who/what does the action while using the constriction, going to the preposition “by”. In case if who did the action is known and are interested in it, always better to change over to the Active Voice instead of the Passive Voice. This course paper focuses on the Passive Voice and where it is used. It is a fact that over the last a few years, there has been a movement within many science disciplines away from the Passive Voice construction. A lot of scientists for now prefer Active Voice in most parts of their works. Media language including news and political reports have great impact and influence on daily life because of the political events and situation happened all over the world. The influence of mass communication led the researchers to focus on the linguistic, social, and psychological aspects of news. Grammatical devices of language in press news is a significant technique used by the journalist to expresses point of view such as using active and passive forms in writing news reports. When the journalist omits the agent of the action deliberately and change the word order of the sentence, it makes the statement impersonal and the participants of action vague for the readers. The topic of the research is “The peculiarities of the use of the Passive Voice in English and Japanese newspapers". The relevance of the topic is connected with the usage of passive construction in newspapers. On the one hand, a good reason for using Passive Voice mentioned in many paper materials, for example, when an agent obvious, unknown, or unnecessary. When the writer wants to emphasize the result and when the agent is very common. One thing that can make it difficult to account for the use of these verbs in both languages is that their meaning has logical (semantic) and practical (pragmatic) elements. The aim of the work is to identify and analyze the passive constructions usage in the English and Japanese newspapers. To achieve the aim, we coped with the following tasks: ? To show the formation of the Passive Voice in both languages ? To give examples of the usage of the passive construction ? To characterize the peculiarities of the use of the Passive Voice in English in comparison with the Japanese language. The object of research is the characteristic of the Passive Voice in English and Japanese. The subject of the study – peculiarities, forms and functions of the Passive Constructions used in the English and Japanese languages. The methods of investigation included contrastive, distributive, componential analyses. The work consists of introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, and the reference list of the works used.
Содержание

Introduction 3 Chapter I. Theoretical Aspects of the Passive Voice in English and Japanese 5 1.1 The Verb types in English 5 1.1.1 The Gerund, Infinitive, Participle I and II and Passive Voice in English 5 1.2 The Category of Voice in English 7 1.2.1 The Passive Voice constructions in English 11 1.2.2 The Usage of the Passive Voice in English 16 1.3 Types of the verb in Japanese 18 1.3.1 The Passive Voice in Japanese 19 1.3.2 The Passive Voice Formation in Japanese 22 Chapter II. The Peculiarities of the Usage of English and Japanese Passive Constructions in Newspapers 25 2.1 The Peculiarities of Japanese and English Newspapers and the Usage of the Passive Voice in Them 25 2.2 Comparative Characteristics of the Passive Constructions Used in English and Japanese Newspapers 30 Conclusion 33 References……………………………………………………………………………………….........37
Список литературы

1. Бархударов Л.С., Штелинг Д.А. Грамматика английского языка.-М.: Издательство литературы на иностранных языках, 2013. – 424с. 2. Василина В.Н., Практикум по теоретической грамматике английского языка = Guide to Theoretical English Grammar / – Минск: АПО, 2008. – 204 с. 3. Викулова, Е. А. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка/ Е. А. Викулова. - Екатеринбург: изд-во урал. ун-та, 2014. - С. 54- 56. 4. Данилов. А.Ю., “Грамматические трудности японского языка.”, 2000 г., с. 5 5. Колпакчи Е.М., “Очерки по истории Японского языка”, 2010, с. 19 6. Крылова, И. П. Грамматика современного английского языка / И. П. Крылова, Е. М. Гордон.- - М.: Книжный дом Университет; Высш. шк., 2003. - 448 с. 7. Прибыток И. И. теоретическая грамматика английского языка. М., 2008.- С. 104 8. Расторгуева Т.А. Очерки по исторической грамматике английского языка. М.: Либроком, 2009. – 168с. 9. Решетникова Н. Д. Развитие глагольных категорий в английском языке/ Н. Д. Решетникова. - М.: Буки-Веди, 2014. - С. 92-95. 10. Tomoko Ishizuka, “The Passive in Japanese”, 2010, p, 28 11. Amdur, Robert J., Jessica Kirwan, Christopher G. Morris. Use of the passive voice in medical journal articles// American Medical Writers Association Journal. – 2010. - 25 (3). – P. 98-110. 12. Anderwald, L. (2014). Measuring the success of prescriptivism: quantitative grammaticography, corpus linguistics and the progressive passive// English Language and Linguistics. -2014. - 18, 1-21. doi:10.1017/S1360674313000257 13. Arika Okrent, Four Changes to English So Subtle We Hardly Notice They're Happening// The Week. -2013. - June 27. 14. Blokh M. Y.A Course in Theoretical English Grammar / M. Y. Blokh. – M., 2004. - P. 83–85. 15. Celce-Murcia, M., Larsen-Freeman, D. The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher's course. - Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1999. - pp. 343-360. 16. Christopher Beedham. Language And Meaning: The Structural Creation of Reality. - John Benjamins, 2005. 17. Cowan, R. The teacher's grammar of English: A course book and reference guide.- Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 18. Declerk, Renaat. The Grammar of the English Verb Phrase/Renaat Declerk. – Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2006.- P. 780. 19. Huddleston, Rodney, Pullum, Geoffrey K. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. - Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002 20. Ilyish B. A.The Structure of Modern English / B. A. Ilyish. - Leningrad, 1971. - P. 114–122. 21. Jespersen. O. Essentials of English Grammar. - Routledge, 2006. – P. 256. 22. Kim Y.-B. Distributional Properties and Endocentricity of English Gerunds. P. 325–332. URL: http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/Y01-1030 23. Quirk Randolph, Greenbaum Sidney, Leech Geoffrey, Svartik Jan. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. - Harlow: Longman, 1985. – P. 96-97. 24. Robert M. Knight. A Journalistic Approach to Good Writing: The Craft of Clarity. - Iowa State Press, 2003. 25. Simon Clarke. Macmillan English Grammar in Context - Macmillan Education, 2008. - 232p. 26. Toshiaki Nakazawa, Manabu Yaguchi, Kiyotaka Uchimoto, Eiichiro Sumita, Sadao Kurohashi. Asian scientific paper excerpt corpus. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (2016), p. 2203–2209. 27. Toyota, J. Fossilisation of passive in English: Analysis of passive verbs. English Studies. – 2009. - 90(4). – P. 476-497. doi:10.1080/00138380902990283 28. Traugott, E. C. Constructions in grammaticalization// The handbook of historical linguistics. – New York (NY), 2003. – P. 624–647. 29. Zandvoort R W and Van Ek, JA. A Handbook of English Grammar. - London: Longman, 1966. 30. ??????? ??? ?2? ??, 2012, p.203. 31. New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/ 32. “The Guardian”, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/international 33. “The Washington Post”, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com 34. https://vk.com/doc40050013_327914802hash=e12d61cb63d6841c28&dl=028c19952780d2abe9 35. ????, “Daily News”, https://mainichi.jp 36. "Security newswrite” https://www.securitymagazine.com/articles/85586-cyber-crime-costs-global-economy-445-billion-a-year (дата обращения: 05.10.20). 37. “The Sankei News”, https://www.sankei.com/nie/news/200321/nie2003210003-n1.html (дата обращения15.05.20). 38. “The Sankei News”, https://www.sankei.com/smp/world/news/200522/wor2005220001-s1.html (дата обращения15.05.20). 39. “The Sankei News”, https://www.sankei.com/smp/affairs/news/200521/afr2005210036-s1.html (дата обращения15.05.20). 40. https://www.securityhouse.net/blog/cat22/index_2.php (дата обращения 15.5.20) 41. The Daily Telegraph, London, 2020, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/
Отрывок из работы

Chapter I. Theoretical Aspects of the Passive Voice in English and Japanese 1.1 The Verb types in English Verbs in English have four basic forms: indefinite, the form of simple past tense (Past Simple), the first participle I present tense (present participle), the second participle II past tense (past participle). The historical development of the past tense in the English language contributed to the fact that English verbs are divided into two large groups: regular verbs and irregular verbs. Verbs that perform the role of a predicate in a sentence are verbs in personal form (finish form). They have categories of person, number, aspect, tense, mood and voice. But non-personal forms of verbs in the English language (non-final form) is only part of the compound predicate, as the above categories do not have. According to form, the verb can be described as a word that has certain grammatical features that are not shared by other parts of speech; they have the category of tense, aspect, voice. The verb has finite and non-finite forms, which are also called verbal. The verbal does not express person, number or mood. Therefore, they cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence. E.g. He does his homework. (does – finite form of the verb, it expresses 3-person, singular, present tense, Active Voice, indicative mood, non-perfect, non-continuous). E.g. Watching TV he does his homework. (watching – non-finite form of the verb, it does not express person, number or mood). Like the finite forms of the verb the verbal have tense and voice distinctions, but their tense distinctions differ greatly from those of the finite verb. There are three verb forms in English: the participle, the gerund and the infinitive.
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